The predecessor of the University of Pécs Medical School was the Medical University of Pécs (POTE) which, from 1 February 1951 to 31 December 1999 operated as a separate, independent institution. Its historical predecessor was the Royal Hungarian Elizabeth University sanctioned in Bratislava (Pozsony) on 7 June 1912, or rather the Medical Faculty of this university, established on 14 April 1918. Due to Trianon the University and the Faculty had to escape from the crowning city and after nearly half a decade of homelessness in the capital, the University arrived in the Mecsek Hills. On 14 October 1923 the instruction started after with the official opening ceremony in the three faculties in Pécs with a professoriate the half of which was academicians. In 1923 the fourth faculty, the Faculty of Evangelic Theology, was established and it operated in Sopron.
In the first quarter of the century (1923-1947) at the Medical Faculty of Elizabeth University and in the following 1/3 of the century at the independent Medical University of Pécs the professoriate included such famous teachers and professors always mentioned with nostalgic feeling as: Prof. Bakay, Heim, Entz, Mansfeld, Imre, Zechmeister, Melczer, Császár, Környey, Kerpel, Lissák, majd Ernst, Cholnoky, Oravecz, Donhoffer, Schmidt, Kudász, Szentágothai, Romhányi, Grastyán and others.
The first extensive development project began in the 1950' with the construction of the "400-bed clinical block" (1966) and the "theoretical block" (1970). In the academic year 1973/74 the dentistry programme was launched with 25 students and the English Programme began a decade later, with 36 students from a dozen countries. In 1990 the Medical University of Pécs (POTE) became a two-faculty institution when the Training College for Health Care Workers was initiated. On 1 January 2000 the Medical University of Pécs was united with the Pollack Mihály Technical College, the Janus Pannonius University of Sciences and with Illyés Gyula Teacher Training College of Szekszárd, and the University of Pécs was established with 9 faculties.