Physical Basis and Application of Medical Imaging Techniques


Official data in SubjectManager for the following academic year: 2022-2023

Course director

Number of hours/semester

lectures: 24 hours

practices: 0 hours

seminars: 0 hours

total of: 24 hours

Subject data

  • Code of subject: OAF-KEF-T
  • 2 kredit
  • General Medicine
  • Optional modul
  • autumn


Course headcount limitations

min. 1 – max. 15


Structure, function and resolution of light and electron microscopes. Generation and spectrum of X-ray, its interaction with matter. Structure of X-ray equipment, image formation, summation effect, contrast. CT, two and three dimensional image formation, resolution, limits of application. Principle of magnetic resonance imaging, interpretation of TR, TE, T1 and T2, as well as their interrelationship. Ultra sound imaging. (According to our actual possibilities there will be picture presentation from the different imaging techniques).


  • 1. The light. Fermat principle. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 2. Basic optics, interference, diffraction. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 3. Camera, optics of eye, aberration of image formation. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 4. Light microscope, resolution (Abbe). - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 5. Phasecontrast and polarised microscope. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 6. Stereomicroscope. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 7. The structure of electronmicroscope, its types, their working principle - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 8. Laser tweezers. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 9. Atomic force microscope (AFM). - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 10. Fluorescence microscope. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 11. Ultramicroscope. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 12. Construction of an X-ray equipment, characteristic of X-ray. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 13. Spectrum of X-ray, its interaction with matter. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 14. X-ray image formation, summation effect, contrast, image amplification. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 15. CT, two and three dimensional image formation, resolution. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 16. PET, gamma camera. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 17. Scintigraphy. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 18. Principle of magnetic resonance, the NMR. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 19. Principle of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), limits of application. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 20. Interpretation of TR, TE, T1 and T2, as well as their interrelationship. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 21. Ultrasound, its medical and biological effects. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 22. Ultrasound imaging. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 23. Written test. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes
  • 24. Written test. - Dr. Lőrinczy Dénes



Reading material

Obligatory literature

Literature developed by the Department

It will be announced at the beginning of the course depending on the possibilities of libraries of Biophysical Department, Faculty of Medicine. A permanent source could be the roaming in the Internet.


Recommended literature

Conditions for acceptance of the semester

The applicants - in the case of more than one absence (up to maximum three absences in which must not be the consultation or test) - should prepare and will be tested from the missed topics given by the instructor. In the case of more than three absences the course can not be accepted.

Mid-term exams

Up to the end of semester an oral exam in case of missed test.

Making up for missed classes

A short written presentation from the missed topics.

Exam topics/questions

Written test


Instructor / tutor of practices and seminars